Thursday, December 26, 2019
Nobody knows exactly when the first Chola kings took power in the southern point of India, but certainly, the Chola Dynasty was established by the third century BCE, because they are mentioned in one of Ashoka the Greats stelae.Ã Not only did the Cholas outlast Ashokas Mauryan Empire, they continued to rule until 1279 CEÃ¢â¬âmore than 1,500 years.Ã Fun Fact The Cholas ruled for more than 1,500 years, making them one of the longest-ruling families in human history, if not the longest. The Chola Empire was based in the Kaveri River Valley, which runs southeast through Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and the southern Deccan Plateau to the Bay of Bengal.Ã At its height, the Chola Empire controlled not only southern India and Sri Lanka, but also the Maldives.Ã It took key maritime trading posts from the Srivijaya Empire in what is now Indonesia, enabling a rich cultural transfusion in both directions, and sent diplomatic and trading missions to Chinas Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 CE). Chola History The origins of the Chola Dynasty are lost to history.Ã The kingdom is mentioned, however, in early Tamil literature, and on one of the Pillars of Ashoka (273 - 232 BCE).Ã It also appears in the Greco-Roman Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. 40 - 60 CE), and in Ptolemys Geography (c. 150 CE).Ã The ruling family came from the Tamil ethnic group. Around the year 300 CE, the Pallava and Pandya Kingdoms spread their influence over most of the Tamil heartlands of southern India, and the Cholas went into a decline.Ã They likely served as sub-rulers under the new powers, yet they retainedÃ enough prestige that their daughters often married in to the Pallava and Pandya families. When war broke out between the Pallava and Pandya kingdoms in about 850 CE, the Cholas seized their chance.Ã King Vijayalaya renounced his Pallava overlord and captured the city of Thanjavur (Tanjore), making it his new capital.Ã This marked the start of the Medieval Chola periodÃ and the peak of Chola power. Vijayalayas son, Aditya I, went on to defeatÃ the Pandyan Kingdom in 885 and theÃ Pallava Kingdom in 897 CE.Ã His son followed up with the conquest of Sri Lanka in 925; by 985, the Chola Dynasty ruled all of the Tamil-speaking regions of southern India.Ã The next two kings, Rajaraja Chola I (r. 985 - 1014 CE) and Rajendra Chola I (r. 1012 - 1044 CE) extended the empire still further.Ã Rajaraja Cholas reign marked the emergence of the Chola Empire as a multi-ethnic trading colossus.Ã He pushed the empires northern boundary out of Tamil lands to Kalinga in the northeast of IndiaÃ and sent his navy to capture the Maldives and the rich Malabar Coast along the subcontinents southwestern shore.Ã These territories were key points along theÃ Indian Ocean trade routes.Ã By 1044, Rajendra Chola had pushed the borders north to the Ganges River (Ganga), conquering the rulers of Bihar and Bengal, and he had also taken coastal Myanmar (Burma), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and key ports in the Indonesian archipelago and Malay Peninsula.Ã It was the first true maritime empire based in India.Ã The Chola Empire under Rajendra even exacted tribute from Siam (Thailand) and Cambodia.Ã Cultural and artistic influences flowed in both directions between Indochina and the Indian mainland.Ã Throughout the medieval period, however, the Cholas had one major thorn in their side.Ã The Chalukya Empire, in theÃ western Deccan Plateau,Ã rose up periodically and tried to throw off Chola control.Ã After decades of intermittent warfare, the Chalukya kingdom collapsed in 1190.Ã The Chola Empire, however, did not long outlast its gadfly. It was an ancient rival that finally did in the Cholas for good.Ã Between 1150 and 1279, the Pandya family gathered its armies and launched a number of bids for independence in their traditional lands.Ã The Cholas under Rajendra IIIÃ fell to the Pandyan EmpireÃ in 1279Ã and ceased to exist. The Chola Empire left a rich legacy in the Tamil country.Ã It saw majestic architectural accomplishments such as the Thanjavur Temple, amazing artwork including particularly gracefulÃ bronze sculpture, and a golden age of Tamil literature and poetry.Ã All of these cultural properties also found their way into the Southeast Asian artistic lexicon, influencing religious art and literature from Cambodia to Java.
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller The play, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, takes issue with those in America who place too much stress upon material gain, at the expense of other, more admirable human values. Miller uses flashbacks to provide exposition, to foreshadow the upcoming tragedy, and most importantly to reveal character traits. An analysis of the main character, Willy Loman, illustrates the underlying theme that the concern over material success breaks down the bonds between men that form the basis of a smooth-functioning society. In a sense there are two Willy Lomans in this play. There is the present broken, exhausted man in his sixties, soon to end his life, and there is the more confident, vigorousÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The father-son conflict between Willy and Biff is complex. First of all, there is a strong personal attachment. He wants Biff to love him. He remembers the fondness shown for him by Biff as a boy, and he still craves this. At this point, however, relations are strained. Although Willy shies away from remembering so painful an episode, he knows in his heart that his affair with the Boston woman left the boy bitterly disillusioned. Feeling some sense of guilt, Willy fears that all of BiffÃ¢â¬â¢s later difficulties may have been really attempts to get revenge. In other words, Biff failed to spite Willy. Although outwardly resenting such alleged vindictiveness, Willy still wants to get back the old comradeship, even if he has to buy it dearly. For instance consider when he a sked Ben, Ã¢â¬Å"Why canÃ¢â¬â¢t I give him something and not have him hate me?Ã¢â¬ and his final moment of joy and triumph occurs when he exclaims, Ã¢â¬Å"IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t that remarkable? BiffÃ¢â¬ ¦ he likes me!Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, Willy is also emotionally involved with Biff because his sonÃ¢â¬â¢s success of failure is his own. By becoming rich and influential, the handsome, personable Biff was slated to provide his own modest advancement. By making his fortune in the business world, Biff would prove that Willy had been right in turning downShow MoreRelatedDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmerican play-write Arthur Miller, is undoubtedly Death of a Salesman. Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1949 at the time when America was evolving into an economic powerhouse. Arthur Miller critiques the system of capitalism and he also tells of the reality of the American Dream. Not only does he do these things, but he brings to light the idea of the dysfunctional family. Death of a Salesman is one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s saddest tragedies. In Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s, Death of a Salesman, three major eventsRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ is a play written by Arthur Miller in the year 1949. The play revolves around a desperate salesman, Willy Loman. Loman is delusioned and most of the things he does make him to appear as a man who is living in his own world away from other people. He is disturbed by the fact that he cannot let go his former self. His wife Linda is sad and lonely; his youngest son Biff is presented as a swinger/player while his eldest son Happy appears anti-business and confused by the behaviorRead MoreDeath of Salesman by Arthur Miller972 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the play Death of a Salesman by the playwright Arthur Miller, the use of names is significant to the characters themselves. Many playwrights and authors use names in their works to make a connection between the reader and the main idea of their work. Arthur Miller uses names in this play extraordinarily. Not only does Miller use the names to get readers to correlate them with the main idea of the play, bu t he also uses names to provide some irony to the play. Miller uses the meanings of someRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrepresents a character with a tragic flaw leading to his downfall. In addition, in traditional tragedy, the main character falls from high authority and often it is predetermined by fate, while the audience experiences catharsis (Bloom 2). Arthur MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s play Death of a Salesman is considered to be a tragedy because this literary work has some of the main characteristics of the tragedy genre. In this play, the main character Willy Loman possesses such traits and behaviors that lead to his downfall, and theRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath of a Salesman can be described as modern tragedy portraying the remaining days in the life of Willy Loman. This story is very complex, not only because of itÃ¢â¬â¢s use of past and present, but because of WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s lies that have cont inued to spiral out of control throughout his life. Arthur Miller puts a modern twist on AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of ancient Greek tragedy when Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s life story directly identifies the fatal flaw of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ . Willy LomanÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic flaw can be recappedRead MoreThe Death Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Dime a Dozen The Death of a Salesman is a tragedy written by playwright Arthur Miller and told in the third person limited view. The play involves four main characters, Biff, Happy, Linda, and Willy Loman, an ordinary family trying to live the American Dream. Throughout the play however, the family begins to show that through their endeavors to live the American Dream, they are only hurting their selves. The play begins by hinting at WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s suicidal attempts as the play begins with Linda askingRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller Essay2538 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesSurname 1 McCain StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: Course: Date: Death of a Salesman Death of a salesman is a literature play written by American author Arthur Miller. The play was first published in the year 1949 and premiered on Broadway in the same year. Since then, it has had several performances. It has also received a lot of accordances and won numerous awards for its literature merit including the coveted Pulitzer for drama. The play is regarded by many critics as the perfectRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArthur Miller wrote the Pulitzer Prize winning play Death of a Salesman in 1949. The play inflated the myth of the American Dream of prosperity and recognition, that hard work and integrity brings, but the play compels the world to see the ugly truth that capitalism and the materialistic world distort honesty and moral ethics. The play is a guide toward contemporary themes foreseen of the twentieth century, which are veiled with greed, power, and betrayal. MillerÃ¢â¬â¢s influence with the play spreadRead MoreDeath Of Salesman By Arthur Miller1475 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto death to achieve their so- called American dream. They live alone and there is no love of parents and siblings. They may have not noticed the America dream costs them so much, which will cause a bigger regret later. In the play Death of Salesman, Arthur Miller brings a great story of a man who is at very older age and still works hard to achieve his desire, which is the American dream. Later, he notices that his youth is gone and there is less energy in his body. Willy Loman is a salesman, whoRead MoreDeath Of A Salesman By Arthur Miller2081 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages#1 Ã¢â¬Å"Death of a SalesmanÃ¢â¬ by Arthur Miller is a tragedy, this play has only two acts and does not include scenes in the acts. Instead of cutting from scene to scene, there is a description of how the lighting focuses on a different place or time-period, which from there, they continue on in a different setting. The play doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go in chronological order. A lot of the play is present in WillyÃ¢â¬â¢s flashbacks or memories of events. This provides an explanation of why the characters are acting a certain
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Write a report on discussing the accounting policies of LLoyds Bank Plc (UK)? Answer: Introduction This paper critically evaluates and discusses the financial reporting of the selected company in the context of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs). Moreover, this critically analyzes the selected company current year published financial reports. In this paper, creates an analysis report on the basis of selected companys latest group accounts, financial statements and annual report while considered the IFRSs. This paper analyses financial reports and discusses the issues or problems related faced by the company related to financial reporting. For this paper, selects Lloyds Bank Plc that is the continuous trading on the Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSX) 100 Index in the past several years (Alexander, Britton Jorissen, 2007). Briefly Description of Lloyds Bank Plc The cause of Lloyds Bank stated in the year 1765, at what time John Taylor (button creator) and Sampson Lloyd (an iron dealer) established a private banking business in Birmingham. Moreover, in recent times, more than 240 years Lloyds Bank helps its customers get to where they want to be in life by delivering expert relationship banking. Lloyds Bank is a monetary services providing group that is listening carefully of commercial as well as retail customers. Lloyds Bank has millions of clientele in UK, and an attendance in almost each group of people. It played major role to help organizations and people, while making a constructive commitment to the groups in where they work (Lloyds Bank plc. 2015). The UK Government took a 43.4% stake in Lloyds Banking Group and it offers 24-hour telephone and web dealing with a record organizations of the retail and business customers. Lloyds Bank operational Headquarters in London with expansive arrangement of branches and ATM in England and Wales. In January 2009, Lloyds Bank gained HBOS plc that is additionally managing an account and insurance agency in the UK by then it called the Lloyds Banking Group. Lloyds Banking Group center business methodology is to drawing in and working with the greater part of their partners (Bellandi, 2012). Accounting Policies of Lloyds Bank Plc This section discussion is based on the Lloyds Bank Plcs united monetary proclamations and the related notes thereto included someplace else in this yearly report. For a discourse of the bookkeeping arrangements utilized as a part of the arrangement of the merged money related proclamations and monetary reports. The planning of money related articulations obliges administration to make evaluations and presumptions that influence sums reported in that. Because of the innate instability included in making evaluations, genuine results reported in future periods may be based upon sums which separate from those evaluations. The bookkeeping philosophies that are respected isolating to the Lloyds Banking Group's outcomes and budgetary position, based upon materiality and enormous judgments and evaluations to the fiscal decrees (Avtgis Rancer, 2010). The united money related explanations of Lloyds Banking Group have been arranged as per International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as received by the European Union (EU). IFRS embodies bookkeeping principles prefixed IFRS issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and those prefixed IAS issued by the IASB's antecedent body and also translations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) and its forerunner body. The EU supported rendition of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement unwinds a percentage of the fence bookkeeping prerequisites; the Group has not exploited this unwinding, and accordingly there is no distinction in application to the Group between IFRS as received by the EU and IFRS as issued by the IASB. The monetary data has been arranged under the recorded expense tradition, as changed by the revaluation of speculation properties, accessible available to be purchased money related resources, exchanging securities and certain other budgetary resources and liabilities at reasonable esteem through benefit or misfortune and all subordinate contracts. The benefits, liabilities and consequences of Group endeavors (counting organized elements) are incorporated in the money related explanations on the premise of records made up to the reporting date. Bunch endeavors incorporate auxiliaries, partners and joint endeavors (West, 2004). Subsidiaries completely combined Backups totally joined from the date on which control is exchanged to the Lloyds Banking Group; they are de-established from the date that control stops. The obtaining system for bookkeeping is utilized to record for business of auxiliaries, partners and joint endeavors blends by the Group. The thought for the obtaining of backups, partners and joint endeavors are the reasonable estimation of the advantages exchanged, the liabilities caused and the value hobbies issued by the Group (Staubus, 2013). Goodwill grows on business mixes, including the securing of collaborators, and on the obtaining of hobbies in joint endeavors and assistants; goodwill relates to the abundance of the expense of a securing over the sensible estimation of the Group's offer of the identifiable resources, liabilities and sudden liabilities procured. Where the sensible estimation of the Group's offer of the identifiable resources, liabilities and startling liabilities of the procured substance is more unmistakable than the expense of securing, the abundance is seen quickly in the pay verbalization. Goodwill is seen as favorable element at expense and is endeavored in any event yearly for disabling (Bellandi, 2012). On the off chance that a hindrance is distinguished the conveying estimation of the goodwill is composed down instantly through the pay proclamation and is not in this manner switched. Goodwill emerging on acquisitions of partners and joint endeavors is incorporated in the Group's interest in joint ventures and partners. At the date of transfer of a backup, the conveying estimation of attributable goodwill is incorporated in the figuring of the benefit or misfortune on transfer with the exception of where it has been composed off straightforwardly to saves previously (Solomon, 2011). Other elusive resources incorporate brands, center store immaterial, bought Mastercard connections; client related intangibles and both inside and remotely produced promoted programming upgrades. Slippery assets which have been made plans to have a restricted profitable life are amortized on a straight line introduce over their evaluated accommodating life. Interest salary and cost are seen in the pay explanation for all energy bearing budgetary instruments using the intense interest framework, except for those requested at sensible regard through advantage or disaster. The compelling interest system is a strategy for ascertaining the amortized expense of a money related resource or risk and of allotting the premium salary or premium cost over the normal existence of the monetary instrument (Carmichael Graham, 2012). The effective premium rate is the rate that exactly refunds the evaluated future cash portions or receipts over the ordinary presence of the fiscal instrument or, when fitting, a shorter period, to the net passing on measure of the budgetary asset or cash related danger. The effective premium rate is figured on starting affirmation of the financial asset or hazard by assessing the future cash streams in the wake of considering all the contractual terms of the instrument however not future credit incidents. The estimation fuses all entireties foreseen that would be paid or got by the Lloyds Group including expected early recovery charges and related disciplines and premiums and discounts that are a vital bit of the general return (Dagwell, Wines Lambert, 2007). Direct incremental exchange expenses identified with the securing, issue or transfer of a budgetary instrument are additionally considered in the count. When a money related resource or a gathering of comparative budgetary resources has been composed down as an aftereffect of a disability misfortune, premium salary is perceived utilizing the rate of premium used to refund the future cash streams with the finished objective of measuring the impedance disaster (Sale, 2005). Short-term employee benefits, for example, compensations, paid nonappearances, execution based money honors and standardized savings expenses are perceived in excess of the era in which the representatives give the related administrations. Lloyds Banking Group works various post-retirement advantage plans for its representatives including both characterized advantage and characterized commitment benefits arranges (Philipp, 2010). A characterized advantage plan is an annuity arrange for that characterizes a measure of benefits advantage that a representative will get on retirement, subject to one or more components, for example, age, years of administration and compensation. A characterized commitment arrangement is a benefits arrangement into which the Lloyds Group pays settled commitments; there is no legitimate or productive commitment to pay further commitments. Lloyds Banking Group works various value settled, offer based pay arranges in admiration of administrations got from sur e of its workers (Sachse, 2006). Quality and Usefulness of the Companys Disclosure On the basis of the above discussion, it can be predicted that Lloyds Banking Group disclosed all its financial information in their financial statements as well as followed the IFRSs regulations during disclosed financial information. Moreover, the excellence and usefulness of the Groups financial reports is because it disclosure all the financial information related to business. Group has disclosed the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures related all financial information that indicates the quality of its financial statements. Moreover, the Group also estimates the assets and liabilities of acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures through apply fair value technique (Mourik, 2007). Quality and Usefulness of the Companys Disclosure On the basis of the above discussion, it can be predicted that Lloyds Banking Group disclosed all its financial information in their financial statements as well as followed the IFRSs regulations during disclosed financial information (Avtgis Rancer, 2010). Moreover, the quality and usefulness of the Groups financial reports is because it disclosure all the financial information related to business. Lloyds Banking Group has disclosed the acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures related all financial information that indicates the quality of its financial statements. Moreover, the Group also estimates the assets and liabilities of acquisition of subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures through apply fair value technique that also presented the Group followed the IFRSs regulations during disclosed financial information (Monks Lajoux, 2011). Lloyds Banking Group has not impairment loss that indicated the strong financial statements and potentially its capital structure. Moreover, Lloyds Banking Group is recognized Goodwill as an asset at price and is experienced at slightest yearly for injury that indicates the usefulness of the Groups disclosure. In addition, the Group disclosed the short-term and long-term employee benefits in its financial statement while considered the IFRSs regulations. So, it can be concluded that Lloyds Banking Group followed the IASBs Conceptual Framework while disclose their financial information and prepared financial statements (Delaney, Whittington, 2012). References Alexander, D., Britton, A. Jorissen, A. (2007). International Financial Reporting and Analysis. USA: Cengage Learning EMEA. Avtgis, T. Rancer, A.S. (2010). Arguments, Aggression, and Conflict: New Directions in Theory and Research. NY: Routledge. Avtgis, T. Rancer, A.S. (2010). Arguments, Aggression, and Conflict: New Directions in Theory and Research. NY: Routledge. Bellandi, F. (2012). Dual Reporting for Equity and Other Comprehensive Income under IFRSs and U.S. GAAP. USA: John Wiley Sons. Carmichael, D.R. Graham, L. (2012). Accountants' Handbook, Financial Accounting and General Topics (12th ed.). USA: John Wiley Sons. Dagwell, R., Wines, G.L. Lambert, C. (2007). Corporate Accounting in Australia. China: UNSW Press. Delaney, P.R. Whittington, O.R. (2012). Wiley CPA Examination Review, Problems and Solutions (39th ed.). USA: John Wiley Sons. Lloyds Bank plc. (2015). About Lloyds Bank. Retrieved from: https://www.lloydsbank.com/banking-with-us/who-we-are.asp?WT.ac=FAAL1012 Monks, R.A.G. Lajoux, A.R. (2011). Valuation Based on Earnings. USA: John Wiley Sons. Mourik, C.V. (2007). Globalisatie en de Rol Van Financial Accounting Informatie in Japan. USA: Rozenberg Publishers. Philipp, R. (2010). Wiley CPA Exam Review 2011 Update. USA: John Wiley Sons. Sachse, W. (2006). Accounting for leases. Germany: GRIN Verlag. Sale, J.T. (2005). Advances in International Accounting, Vol. 18. UK: Elsevier. Solomon, J. (2011). Corporate Governance and Accountability. USA: John Wiley Sons. Staubus, G.J. (2013). The Decision Usefulness Theory of Accounting: A Limited History. NY: Routledge. West, B.P. (2004). Professionalism and Accounting Rules. UK: Psychology Press.
Monday, December 2, 2019
In a relationship, never-ending devotion and faithfulness further deepens the impact of the bond, establishing a friendship that will last an eternity. In the novel, Snow Flower and the Secret Fan by Lisa See, the true bond of friends is shown through the relationship between the two main protagonists, Lily and Snow Flower. When they were younger and were starting their Ã¢â¬Å"footbinding daysÃ¢â¬ , they learned of each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s problems and coped with their hardships together. As they grew older and got married, they experienced many difficulties trying to meet each other but still overcame them by writing to each other constantly. Even when one betrayed the other, the other always understood. Through their everlasting devotion to each other, these two girls formed a relationship that stayed true and loyal for their entire lives. In nineteenth-century China, when wives and daughters were foot-bound and lived in almost total seclusion, the women in one remote Hunan County developed their own secret code for communication called nu shu or Ã¢â¬Å"womenÃ¢â¬â¢s writingÃ¢â¬ . We will write a custom essay sample on Snow Flower or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Some girls were paired with laotongs, old sames, in emotional matches that lasted throughout their lives. They painted letters on fans, embroidered messages on handkerchiefs to communicate their feelings and emotions to each other. Ã¢â¬Å"FootbindingÃ¢â¬ became a social tradition for all women and showed their social status. Lily and Snow Flower were two laotongs who established their friendship at a young age. They get their foot bound on the same day at the same hour for two laotongs must be alike in every way. Once they get their foot bound, they must never leave the Ã¢â¬Å"upstairs womenÃ¢â¬â¢s chambersÃ¢â¬ where no man can enter. Through the painful ordeal of getting their foot bound, the two laotongs strengthened their friendship by understanding each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s pain and suffering. Lily and Snow Flower become acquainted with each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s lifestyle and they slowly learn about the differences within the two. While Lily is of average social class and wealth, Snow Flower is from an esteemed family whose grandfather was an imperial scholar for the Emperor. Even with their social class differences, Lily and Snow Flower are not disturbed by it, marking a true loyalty to each other. When Lily and Snow Flower both got married, they found obstructions that hindered them from meeting one another. Since Lily married into the most respected family in a nearby village near her own natal home due to her perfect Ã¢â¬Å"lily feetÃ¢â¬ , and Snow Flower married into a distant village further away, arranging a rendezvous was hard especially since they had more important purposes to take care of when getting married. One was to obey their mother-in-law and husband and give birth to many sons. Because LilyÃ¢â¬â¢s mother-in-law was very traditional and kept to all of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rules, she was extremely strict when it came to Lily meeting Snow Flower. Even with all these hindrances, Lily and Snow Flower found ways to communicate with one another. They used Ã¢â¬Å"nu shuÃ¢â¬ and the paper fan that was first used when they met before becoming laotongs. By communicating this way, they expressed their inner most feelings on marriage and matters that seemed so trivial to them. The fan is a symbol of their unwavering sign of true friendship for it showed everything that happened between the two girls from childhood to death. Throughout all the sufferings and joyous moments they had together, Lily and Snow Flower kept true to each other, telling each other everything they knew. But one problem arose when Lily discovered the true secret of Snow FlowerÃ¢â¬â¢s once respected family. Snow FlowerÃ¢â¬â¢s family which was very well revered by all those in the village suffered a staggering blow to the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s honor when her father took to the Ã¢â¬Å"pipeÃ¢â¬ , meaning opium. Slowly, the family name was destroyed due to the weakness of the father and they became in debt and were left with only their once prosperous house with no furniture. Gradually, all the people in her family left, leaving behind only her drug addicted father and helpless mother. Lily had no idea that Snow Flower was living in such state until the day arrived when Lily finally went to her house to help prepare Snow Flower for her wedding. Even when Snow Flower did not tell Lily the most important aspects of her life, Lily still accepted Snow Flower and even tried to understand her distress even more. If loyalty marks true friendship, then what Lily and Snow Flower had between them was the mark of forgiving and understanding faithfulness that extended a lifetime. The novelist, Lisa See displays a relationship that was carried on throughout two girlsÃ¢â¬â¢ footbinding days to as far as their marriage days. Through the blissful and cheerful times to their misery and pain, Lily and Snow Flower remained close as ever, exhibiting their mark of true friendship.