Sunday, May 24, 2020

Italian Culture and Work Ethics - 6449 Words

Innovation, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1999 583 Working Values and the Italian Family MASSIMO BELLOTTO and ALBERTO ZATTI A B S T R A C T History teaches us that it is through the family that new generations are equipped with ethics and values regarding work. The advent of bourgeois society, with its characteristic openness towards other social classes, appears to have relegated the promotion of working values by families to the background. This study sets out to test the hypothesis according to which the family continues to maintain an important role in the transmission of working values. Based on data from the Work Importance Study (Super and Sverko, 1995: Life Roles, Values, a n d Careers, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass), two subgroups were†¦show more content†¦Ethics are, as the etymology of the word suggests, the study of the customs (ethos), the social habits, the relational practices of a people or social grouping. Morality relates more to the theme of how much certain behaviour corresponds to a reference model. In this sense, it is important to distinguish between ethics and morality when s tudying the customs and habits, in a word, the ethics of families (and not their morality). This is to avoid the pitfalls associated with referring to a particular set of values held by the family being analysed. What exacdy are the working values held by families? What relationship exists between these values and family needs? What are the motivations that stir the family organization? And which family values can be linked, even indirecdy, with work? Let us seek some answers to these important questions. Families in history have also been units of production. The peasant family, craft guilds, the factory worker families of the first and second industrial revolutions (Manoukian, 1976) are the most emblematic examples. In medieval society the chances of changing ones profession from the one inherited from the family were rather hmited. Children continued the working traditions of the family without having much choice in the matter. The transmission of working values within family gro ups, historically speaking, seemed to go without saying. However, it would be worthwhile to pose the questionShow MoreRelatedInternational Perceptions Of Management As An American Invention932 Words   |  4 Pagesacceptable workplace behavior as illustrated by Todd’s experience in Italy. The Italian experience also highlights how cultural models, while helpful, do not apply uniformly. Italy is a high uncertainty avoidance, low indulgence culture (, 2015). While these scores would not lead one to believe that drinking on the job is acceptable, Hofstede notes, â€Å"Formality in Italian society is important and the Italian penal and civil code are complicated with clauses, codicils etc. What is surprisingRead MoreChapter 3 discusses the background of the Italians who came to the United States. Italy had free600 Words   |  3 Pagesbackground of the Italians who came to the United States. Italy had free elections in the South, but the corruption from crimi nal organizations and nobles influenced politics. Southern Italy had a large part of the population until the late twentieth century and peasants worked in agriculture. The central government was weak and ineffective. Italians had strong family bonds and children started working in fields at very young ages. Family is one of the key defining aspects of the Italians with householdRead MoreThe Italian Renaissance And The Renaissance1424 Words   |  6 PagesThe Italian Renaissance was an explosion of art, writing, and thought, that roughly lasted between 1300 to 1600. In this time each citizen, countrymen, or villager had and performed different jobs and careers. Humanism the study of Greek and Roman writings, art, and architecture, initially jump started the Renaissance, and the need for art. Artists now were inspired to use life like art and linear perspective, so art seemed and was more realistic. The start of the Italian Renaissance was theRead MoreEssay about The Effects of Values on Decision Making1022 Words   |  5 Pagesand professional life. My cultural, organizational and personal values represent my beliefs and traditions of my cultural environment. Through my research, I examined values and based them on how important they are within my personal, organizational, work, and cultural lifestyle. Based on the research, I came to the conclusion knowing the foundational elements of individual behavior can be very rewarding. Values do not act individually, but also relate with other values as well. The dynamic betweenRead MoreCultural Values Essay example1059 Words   |  5 Pagesprofessional life. My cultural, organizational and personal values represent my beliefs and traditions of my cultural environment. Through my research, I examined values and based them on how important they are within my personal, organizational, work, and cultural lifestyle. Based on the research, I came to the conclusion knowing the foundational elements of individual be havior can be very rewarding. Values do not act individually, but also relate with other values as well. The dynamic betweenRead MoreCulture Clash Essay1064 Words   |  5 PagesItalian culture has a rich history that includes art, classic architecture, music, popular traditions and customs. Many people who visit Italy are somewhat surprised by the diversity of the dialects, cuisines, architecture, and craftsmanship. My father, Giuseppe, now deceased, was born in Sannicandro, province of Bari, Italy (Region: Puglia, - southern agricultural area near the Adriatic coast). My mother is of Italian descent and both her parents were born in Italy. I have always been proudRead MoreThe Immigration Of Japanese Immigrants1259 Words   |  6 Pages First, many aliens, including Italians, Germans and Japanese were moved from certain areas and were restricted from air travel. Following this, these groups were excluded from many Western states like California, Arizona, etc. The fact that Japanese Americans were not the only aliens being relocated and restricted could have led to a false sense of security between these groups. However, those of Japanese ancestry were finally detained, while Germans and Italians were not. In the end, Japanese AmericansRead MoreCritical Thinking Case For Hiring Committee932 Words   |  4 Pageswas the pop-culture and social environment I was exposed to during the 60s 70s. I also gained a few when I was in the Girl Scouts and during my time as a theater intern. How has culture affected them? I believe the culture of my grandparents impacted my work ethic values. My father is 1st generation Italian American and his parents came to this country with nothing. My grandparents worked hard for everything they had and did not believe in taking handouts. They passed their work ethic onto my fatherRead MoreHumanism As The Foundation For The Italian Renaissance1272 Words   |  6 PagesWhat is Humanism? Why is Humanism often considered the foundation for the Italian Renaissance? Why did Humanism take root in Italy? Why did Humanism drastically change the literature being produced in Italy? These are the key questions to consider when attempting to understand why Humanism a spark to a flame for many in fourteenth century Italy. For Humanism not only brought the Renaissance to Italy, but created a whole new form of documentation, which has persevered throughout time. During theRead MoreCase Study : Coffee Shop And Its Impact On Organizational Culture1427 Words   |  6 Pagesbeen selected by the Dreamx Coffee Parlour for the purpose of conducting a survey about the causes of ethical breaches by its employees and its impact on organizational culture. This coffee shop has been in operation since a decade. The Coffee shop provides the coffee lovers a unique taste of Coffee with a blend of ancient Italian roaster. The coffee shop also offers juices, sandwiches, snacks, chocolates, cakes as side orders. It primarily employs college students as its employees and the management

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Bba 360 Mid Term Exam - 1773 Words

BBA 360 Mid Term Exam 1. What were the traditional 4 functions of mgmt developed in 1912 by Fayol? What functions do you think are effective in the 21st century? The traditional 4 functions of management by Fayol are; Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling. Planning is the step where an action plan is created based on the organization and team goal, objectives are created and deadlines. Organizing is the step where team roles, responsibilities and task are assigned. Leading is the step where managers motivate, and encourage team members to achieve the objectives and goals of the company. Effective leaders motivate and influence others to achieve their work. Controlling is the step where managers measure the achievement of objectives and goals set, and to ensuring that the organization is operating successfully. In the 21st Century, I believe that all the traditional 4 functions are essential for the success of a company. Any function is less effective than the other one. In order to have an effective management and leadership the 4 functions are essential to accomplish the objectives and goals of the organization. 2. What are Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development? Tuckman’s 5 Stage of Group Development are; Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Most teams follow this 5 stages for high performance. Forming is the stage where people get to know their coworkers and team roles and responsibilities are not clear. Storming is the stage where conflictShow MoreRelatedMarketing Mistakes and Successes175322 Words   |  702 Pagestaught a variety of undergraduate and graduate courses in management, marketing, and ethics. Prior to that he taught at the University of Minnesota and George Washington University. His MBA and Ph.D. are from the University of Minnesota, with a BBA from Drake University. Before coming into academia, he spent thirteen years in retailing with the predecessor of Kmart (S. S. Kresge), JCPenney, and Dayton-Hudson and its Target subsidiary. He held positions in store management, central buying, and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Characteristics of Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay

The Characteristics of Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay Informative essays are somewhat more descriptive. Textbooks ought to be free. Researching the topic will enable you to find out more about what fascinates you, and should you pick something you truly like, writing the essay will be more enjoyable. At times you might require some expert help with argumentative essay topics. To come across argumentative essay topics easy on various platforms, you want to comprehend about the argumentative essay. The conventional five-paragraph essay is not uncommon in writing argumentative essays, but it's only one means to write one. Professional essay writers at 5staressays can help you, should you're looking for specialists to guide you. The role of assigning an essay to middle school students is to make awareness and permit them to develop writing skills. To write a strong argumentative essay, they should begin by familiarizing themselves with some of the common, and often conflicting, positions on the research topic so that they can write an informed paper. When they are writing their argumentative essays that have t o find, read and analyze lots of material to perform good. The story revolves around looking for grooms particularly in the neighborhood area that was the culture of that moment. For instance, you can opt for a topic for elementary, middle, or higher school. Once every so often, your professor might provide you the liberty of writing an argumentative essay for college on the subject of your choice. So, both students of medical care programs along with students of any other specialty may have a task to compose an essay on health topic. An argumentative essay requires you to choose a topic and have a position on it. Typically, it doesn't include references and quotes in it. So be certain that you select a subject, which has values in it. In many professional contexts, respectful argumentation is the thing that leads to the growth of new suggestions and perspectives. The Fight Against Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay When it has to do with writing an argumentative essay, the most essential point to do is to select a top ic and an argument which you can really get behind. Thus, you can ask all the essential questions and consult on some points. You might decide to write on the issue you've already formed an opinion about. The End of Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay Getting in a position to compose a strong argument will allow you to succeed in society. A conclusion is, undoubtedly, the most crucial portion of the argumentative essay since you can either support the very good impression or destroy it entirely. You may observe that the approach is practically always the exact same. Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay for Dummies The best method is to select an interesting and compelling research topic. At some stage, you're likely to be requested to compose an argumentative essay. Remember you may make funny argumentative essays if you do a few things. A great argumentative essay is going to be based on established or new research instead of only on your ideas and f eelings. If you select the incorrect subject, you might get stuck with your writing and have a tough time moving forward. Maybe you presently have a generalized idea of what things to write in your mind, and the following will allow you to concentrate on some specific thought or perhaps change your choice. Our argumentative essay topic ideas are supposed to save your time when you have to choose what things to write about. In choosing your topic, it's frequently a good idea to start with a subject which you already have some familiarity with. The Debate Over Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay If when you are preparing a report you just analyze specific literature, the essay demands a superb penetration into the issue. Another reason is to observe how well students argue on various views and demonstrate understanding of the studied subject. The student should investigate a topic, evaluate evidence, collect, generate, and set a standpoint on this issue in a powerful and concis e method. Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay and Good Topics for a Argumentative Research Essay - The Perfect Combination There are invariably a wide selection of opinions on the field of technology, and here are our favourite things to consider on this issue. You don't need to acquire super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be certain to do your homework on what the recent laws about your favorite topic actually say. Your aim must be to present an issue prior to your reader by analyzing all the angles connected with that topic. You will be assigned a topic, or your professor will enable you to select your own.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Strategic Management Professional Development Plan

Question: Critically evaluate the underlying concepts and the theories of strategic management and the relationship between strategy, stakeholder aspirations and governanceDemonstrate understanding and awareness of current and emerging Economic, Political, Legal and Cultural factors and critically evaluate those which will have an impact on strategic management in an international contextFormulate business strategies in a systematic way , and develop criteria in order to evaluate and select those most likely to prove successful for a particular organisationDevelop plans for the implementation of a business strategies, presenting strategic proposals to stakeholders in a persuasive and authoritative manner. Answer: Report structure for professional development Introduction In the current study, I have discussed about some strategic goals of the organization Virgin Megastore. From the past few months, I have identified that the organization needs to monitor the strategic areas to control the operation as per the goals. Hence, I would take help from the module content to guide the changes that are required to achieve goals of the organization.I have observed that by launching a new product in the market, I could rearrange the sales target as per the requirements. In addition, I also realize that before extending the business in the global market, it is important to increase the products range. With the vast category of the products becomes easy to extend the market. In such context, the module content helps me to set the SMART objectives that I would align with my organizations strategic objectives. My SMART objectives stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Bounds. I have discussed the relevancy of objectives in the following dia gram. SMART Example Specific-Objectives are specific that say what I am supposed to do. Being a CEO of the company, I have realized I need to extend the products and service range. Thus, I am determined to launch a new product in the market. Measurable-I have the ability to measure whether or not I am meeting the objectives. I should discuss about the strategic plans with the boards of directors, managers. Hence, I would ask Finance department members to come up with the required budgets. Altogether, by a intensive discussion on every week, I will prepared the plan. Achievable-My objectives are completely achievable. By discussing the plan with the members on every week, board of directors, HRM members and employees at each level, I would proceed with the plan. After 6 months of discussion, I will proceed to execute the plan. Realistic-I would realistically achieve the objectives with the support and resource from the organization. The weekly and monthly meeting of 6 months is realistic. Carrying out plan usually require 6 months of discussion. In the plan, I will discuss about the market analysis, positioning, products and services, competitors and other segments of the marketing. Time-I could execute the plan within 1 year Within a year, I will complete executing the goals of launching the new product in the market. Table 1: SMART objectives The purpose of report is to increase the sales and lead the organization towards a particular direction. Moreover, by our developed organizational culture, we have communicated the purpose of increasing the sales. Thus, each individual in the organization is aware of the necessity of extending the product range. In addition, by accomplishing the plans I could also develop my professional skills. I understand being an effective Chief Executive offer is not easy. I need to gain the required skills and knowledge to hold the position and bring in the profit to the organization. I need to control the overall operation of the organization. Thus, I often think of implementing new ideas and plans to achieve both personal as well as professional goals. In this context, I need to implement an action plan to achieve my target. So that I could learn about my strength and weakness and organizational strength and weakness. How do I fit the design In this context, I would take help from Daft (2013), where I see how do you fit the design questionnaire in thirteen chapters. I have found out that I have strong internal skills such as communication, problem solving, handling critical situation. In addition, I have the corporate skills, innovation skills and the skills of building an effective organization culture. I prefer to analyse the political environment,as this requires external knowledge and skills, which seems to be difficult. However, I prefer to take challenge and it does not make me worried whether the challenges come from the professional environment and personal life. On the contrary, I have another three different areas, which I need to develop. I am gearing up myself to deal with my weakness and resolve the issues. I have categorized my weakness and discussed them in the following. Poor skills in human resource management: While pursuing the course in business administration I received the highest score in Human Resource management. However, I often fail to implement the ideas to develop human resource management in the organization. As I am working as the CEO of the company, I need to have proper knowledge about implementing the ideas of human resource. So that I help the HR managers of the organization in succeeding the plan though it is none of responsibility. However, as I run the operation from the top, it is my responsibility to take care of each segment of the organization. I should develop collective as well as more political skills and increase crucial competencies to find more option to run the operation of Virgin Megastore effectively. Hence, I could go through the history of some of the large organizations or I could learn the skills from an entrepreneur or successful fissional. Their ways of solving the problem and creating ideas could help me to b rush up my skills. Lack of skill in decision-making: This is one of my major weakness. I often fail to take the appropriate decision based on the situation. Decision-making is one of the major skills that I need to learn. There have been cases where I have to deal with the critical situation while working in the organization. However, I am not good at this particular activity. I remember once I had to a face a situation of employee conflict. First, I find it difficult to understand people, their way of thinking, their usual approach of performing activities. Thus, I lack confidence in developing this particular skill. Hence, I would focus on developing the skills of understanding the situations. Thereafter, I would pay attention to the reasons of occurrence and the consequences. Thus, based on these three section, I would take the necessary steps to resolve the issues. In addition, I also need to develop my analytical skills; thus, I could judge things based on the logic. While working in the professio nal field, it is necessary to judge and analyse the things based on the rationale instead of depending on the emotions. Skills of performing strategies: According to Daft (2013), formulation as well as the implementer are the crucial techniques based in which an individual could add value to the strategic management. While pursuing the course in business administration, my score in this field was not that poor. However, at the time of dealing with the real-world issues, I find some barriers in performing the strategies. This happens due to lack of discussion and negotiation with the members. Sometimes, I fear that I may not be able to make people understand about the purpose of respective action. Nevertheless, I need to enhance this particular skill to perform the required marketing strategies for developing the sales of the organization. As I have developed the plan of launching new products in the market, I will perform the necessary strategies. Hence, I may require effective managerial skills. In addition, with the help of Daft test, I have gained the confidence that I could effectively lead the en tire team, develop the team and work together on common goals. Furthermore, I have taken the help from the CP 360 feedback from my senior colleagues and other successful professionals. I have attached the comments given in the feedback. Communication: Have effective listening skills and creatively expresses the ideas. However, lack of ways used in communication. Absence of logical and comprehensive conclusion. Express ideas with logically and willingly. However, required improvement in communication, analysis. This is how senior colleagues and senior professionals have rated me in this particular area. Topic of interest: Based on the outcome of How do you fit the design and understanding my area of development. I have selected certain criteria to analyse my strength and weakness. I have focussed on my weakness to add strong values to deal with the coming challenges. Aligning the marketing strategies with the organizational structure Forming, structuring and leading the teams within the organization Developing the organizational culture, strategies and implementing the changes in the organizational structure In order to align the marketing strategies with the organizational structure, working as the Chief Executive officer, I need to develop this strategy and performance skills. Before implementing the strategies, I would communicate the purpose of the change to each level of employee of the organization to deal with the resistance to change. Thereafter, to develop the structure, build the team and guide the team, hence, I also need to apply the communication strategies. If the communication is improved, then it becomes easy to build the team and set the common objectives for all in the organization. Developing the organizational culture is a positive initiative, which can easily be implemented. However, it is evident that organizational culture could largely influence the performance of the organization. Hence, at the time of developing the organizational culture, I would propose to provide training to the employees. To implement this, it is necessary to have a strong discussion with the team members to reach achieve the goals. Thus, I believe that putting the vision in writing is a significant technique of making it successful. Critical Reflection The Daft (2013) individual result has helped to analyse my both strength and weakness. By analysing my strength and weakness, I would design my goals utilizing the ways of SMART Objectives to accomplish them successfully. In this context, Casalino (2014), mentioned that organizational design includes a methodology that further involves further steps, which helps to identify the dysfunctional aspects work flow, structure, strategies. These aspects need to be aligned with the current business scenarios, goals and implemented changes. In order to discuss about the topic of interest, I need to discuss the design of Virgin Megastore. Aligning the organizational structure and the existing strategies of the organization. I have discussed the plan with the board of directors to implement the design process. By creating new strategy and understanding Virgin Megastore environment. Likewise, I will align organizational structure with the proposed structure. As per the current scenario of the organization, I found the necessity of building the bridge to relate all members together. Then, I would discuss the importance of the change. Hence, I may use organizational policy to avoid resistance to change. I would apply the policy of treating each employee equally and providing them the required benefits. Thus, it becomes easy for a CEO to implement the proposed restructuring strategies. In order to shape as well as reinforce organizational culture, I would interact with the employees, managers, board of directors, and discuss the purpose of changing the organizational culture. Hence, I would listen to their ideas and opinions. This could help me to identify their individual issues. Based on the interaction, I could resolve the potential internal issues. Personal Action Plan Duration Goals Describe/express Measurement Obstacles Resources Time table Short Term Applying the strategies of increasing sales and leading the business toward the global market Depending the current skills and organizational competencies Monitoring the execution process weekly to lead the initiative toward the ultimate direction Lack of time and human resource Providing training to the existing employees 1st week of June/3rd week of July 2016 Analysing the appropriate product for launching based on the market analysis Analysing the existing products and services Designing the strategies based on the current market demands, resources and trading policies and market Aggressive strategies of competitors in the industry Using the technology to forecast sales and required resources Immediately Decision making skills Having different views of thinking and aligning them with organizational activities Trying to solve the current issues with the logical view to judge the efficiency Due to lack of time facing difficulties to make immediate decision Immediately Skills of performing the strategies Trying to implement the strategies based on views of employees Measuring the outcome of existing strategies comparing with the proposed strategies Lack of financial resource, time Employee support, skilled employees, organizational commitment 2016 Medium Term CEO Trying to perform the responsibility and hope to see myself in the board of directors Measuring my performance with the outcome received in the previous years. Identifying the difference between the existing process and current process Due to poor time management skills, I find it difficult to enhance the performance with new strategies. In addition, no assistance from the board directors 2017 Long Term Become the member of Board of director Perform effectively to increase the profit margin. Lead the organization to the global market. Understand the market and engage the organization in social activity Measure organizational performance with the performance of previous years Financial resources and human resource 2020 Board of directors may be the obstacle if the objects are not met Table 2: Action plan Conclusion On the completion of the report, I would mention that I have discussed my important skills, strength, weakness, areas that need improvement. Hence, I need to apply those skills in real-world issues. In addition, I need to pay attention to the areas that I am not good at. The things that I would brush up in the following days have discussed in the action plan. In addition, I have discussed about my weakness in decision-making and communication. Moreover, I should also focus on the communication. I understand that by developing the communication, I could interact with the managers, employees and others who are involved with organizational activities. In order to guide myself toward the desired direction, I have prepared the action plan to achieve my short term, medium and long-term goals. By achieving these goals, I could further enhance my career as per the desired direction. Executive SummaryThe strategic management of a firm is important for its success. An organizational is a complex entity in which a lot of stakeholders coexist. It is important to identify the operational issues in an organization. In this business report, Virgin Megastores is selected, for the purpose of the study. This business proposal identifies the operational loopholes of the company and is intended for the top management. A change in the organizational design is required for greater success of the company. The current situation of Virgin Megastore is analyzed by various models such as Porters Five Forces, SWOT analysis, Dafts situation analysis and Dafts contingency factors. These frameworks give clear idea of the external as well as internal conditions of the company. This would enable the top management to understand the current situation and make appropriate decisions. The literature review gives basic concepts regarding organizational design, organizational culture and scie ntific management theories. The analysis of the organization is done as per the proposed dimensions and the restructured organization is presented. The existing and the proposed organizational charts are compared for better insights of the senior management. This business proposal would give new directions to Virgin Megastore and would lead to its success. Company Overview Virgin Megastores is an entertainment retail chain that operates globally. It was founded by Sir Richard Branson in 1971 ( 2016). The headquarters of Virgin Megastores is at London, United Kingdom. The current operations of the store are exclusively located in Middle East and North Africa ( 2016). The primary products of the company are consoles, books, games, t-shirts, magazine and others. It has several stores all around the world- Jordan, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Morocco and others. Virgin Megastores has its exclusive presence in the Middle East countries such as Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Syria, Oman and the United Arab Emirates. The market share is 36.2 % ( 2016). The key competitors are HMV, Circuit City, Wal mart, Best Buy and others ( 2016). The trade name of Virgin Megastore in Middle East is V Star Multimedia LLC ( 2016). The first megastore was opened in Deira City Centre in Dubai, in the year 2001. There are more than eight Virgin Megastore located all around Dubai. The company is an all round entertainment retailer, which is extremely popular among the masses ( 2016). The megastores are also a venue of live performances by singers and other artists ( 2016). The store organizes quiz nights and other events. There is also a newly opened boutique section that offers a wide variety of items. Virgin Megastore is extremely popular among the people of Middle East ( 2016). In UAE, this store is favorite among the locales as it provides wide range of music. Business case for restructuring The operation of a company requires lot of efforts for the smooth functioning. There is a need to identify the existing business problem Virgin Megastores. The boss has asked to identify the current issues prevalent in the organization and provide suitable solutions for it. This is because there is a need to eliminate any malfunctioning in the organization so that the organizational objectives are achieved. The company has lot of operational problems because of the fact that the company is a result of several acquisitions (Harb and Chaaya 2015). A business problem is identified for the purpose of this study. The wide number of acquisitions has led the company to reduce the operational excellence. The quality of services has been hampered due to this factor. There are several frameworks, which are used to identify the internal as well as external factors of Virgin Megastores. SWOT Analysis This presents the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for the company. Strengths- Virgin Megastore has its worldwide presence with thousands of stores all around the world. The company is well established in the Middle East. The company enjoys strong brand name of Virgin (Nnadi 2014). It has also the backup of Sir Richard Branson, which makes it widely popular among the masses ( 2016). Weakness- There is many operational issues for the company including lack of coordination within the departments (GeismarSriskandarajah and Zhu 2016). There are limited business options in the Middle East countries, as its major focus is London ( 2016). The company enjoys low product portfolio and a wide number of stores are already closed. Opportunities- There is huge options in music electronics (Roels 2012). The company can integrate into the manufacturing function of music electronics. It can feature their own albums in their stores which would attract more number of people. The company should participate more in sponsoring events and should undertake more promotional activities. Threats- The market is dominated by a wide range of competitors, which implies that Virgin Megastores needs to make excellent products (Heath 2014). The competitors are offering innovative models, which are attracting the target audience. The technology is undergoing rapid transformation; hence, the company needs to update its technological framework. Porters Five Forces The Porters Five Forces models help the company to analyze the potential risks, profitability and opportunity (Lee Kim and Park 2012). This is done through the analysis of five components in a business venture. The five factors are discussed below- Threat of entry- There is high threat of entry in the entertainment industry (Lee Kim and Park 2012). The rules are comparatively relaxed to enter in the entertainment sector and hence a lot of competitor can pose threat to Virgin Megastore (ae 2016). Bargaining power of supplier- The Virgin Airlines is an international business organization, which enjoys consistent growth. The suppliers can decide independently whether to supply Virgin Megastores with raw materials or not (ae 2016). The company depends on the suppliers for receiving products. They also transfer the finished goods to the local Virgin Megastores. The suppliers have the capability to increase their prices, which may pose difficulties for the company. Bargaining power of buyer- The customers should be attracted constantly to maximize the selling opportunities of the company. Virgin Megastores do have innovative product ideas because of the support of Sir Richard Branson (ae 2016). He was able to provide quality products at competitive prices on a global basis. In the entertainment industry, the customer enjoys high bargaining power, because of the large number of options available to them. Threats of substitute- The Virgin Megastores is offering less differentiated products. The company is producing similar products in bulk quantity (ae 2016). There are a lot of identical products offered by the competitors like HMV, Wal mart and others. The companies face constant threats from the similar offering from other companies. Competitive rivalry- There is a lot of competitors coexisting in the market place. The company should strive to provide the best services to the customers in order to continue attracting them. Virgin Megastores must generate sufficient competitive advantage. It should integrate its core competencies in the business process as well as the corporate culture (ae 2016). Dafts contingency factor It is important for Virgin Megastores to determine their contingency factors, for analyzing the current operational issues (Daft 2015). They are discussed below- Organizational technology- This is concerned with the adoption of technology for the purpose of converting inputs into outputs. The company uses innovative technological platforms such as Web Enabled Store, Virgin Information System, point of sales terminals and others (Daft 2015). Size- This factor takes into account the size of the company, total sales and others. There are millions of employees working in Virgin Megastores globally. The company also witnessed a growth of 5.8% (approx) in their total sales (ae 2016). Environment- The Company works in coordination with the government, industry, suppliers and customers on a regular basis (ae 2016). An issue with these entities can affect the overall functioning of the company. Organizational culture- The Company has its own principles such quality values, value for money, work life balance and others. It maintains its own workplace culture and is concerned with the well being of the employees. Organizational goals- Virgin Megastore believes in creating a unique purchasing experience for its customers (ae 2016). It aims to offer a convenient and simple user interface so that the customers can enjoy a smooth shopping experience. Dafts structural dimension The structural dimension is useful in explaining the internal characteristics of the organization (Langen 2012). The different dimensions are described as below- Formalization- The organization follows good written documentation procedures including job descriptions and regulations (Langen 2012). Specialization- Virgin megastores have less number of job segregations. The organizational jobs are not clearly divided in individual jobs. This often gives rise to confusion among the employees (Langen 2012). Centralization- Virgin Megastores has decentralized operations. This implies that the decision making authority is designated to all the levels of organization (both top management and lower management levels) (Langen 2012). There may be various decision making activities such as selection of suppliers, making purchases, recruitment of employees and others. Hierarchy of authority- Virgin Megastores has well defined span of control at each stage (Langen 2012). The number of employees reporting to a particular supervisor is determined for each department. Literature Review The organizations comprises of its people and the interrelations between them. An organization performs vital functions so that the organizational goals are attained. An organization consists of various departments which perform individual activities. They aim for horizontal coordination as well as vertical integration. The modern organizations are characterized by flexible strategies and greater inter cooperation between departments (Casalino 2014). The organizations are goal oriented and inspire the employees to achieve the organizational vision. An organization needs to interact with the suppliers, customers, competitors and various components of the external environment. Organizational design There are several organizational theories that help in better understanding of the organizational design- Weber Bureaucracy, Scientific Management theory by Taylor and others. Scientific Management theory Frederick Taylor has formulated scientific management theory with an objective to find the most suitable method of performing a particular task (Bell and Martin 2012). The four most common principles are outlined as below- There should be proper allocation of work between the employees and the managers. The managers should allocate their time in training as well as planning of the tasks. This allows the employees to work efficiently (Bell and Martin 2012). The work performance should be monitored on a regular basis. There should be sufficient supervision and instructions so that the best quality of work is produced. There should be proper matching of the jobs with the capability of the employees. The workers should be trained well so that there is maximum operational efficiency. The rule of thumb should be replaced by scientific methods (Bell and Martin 2012). The most effective method of performing a task needs to be identified and implemented. Organizational culture The organizational culture is a vital component in determining the success of the organization. There are diverse cultural norms in the organizations. The Handys cultural typology is a wonderful tool to assess the organizational culture of the company. Handys cultural typology There are four main types of organizational culture prevalent in an organization- role, power, person and task. The power cultures are prevalent in small companies which are dominated by as single entrepreneur (Dinges and Maynard 2013). The head of the company enjoys all the power to control the company. The role cultures are seen in organizations where the role of senior management is to coordinate the various functions in the organization. These types of cultures are highly procedural in nature. The person culture emphasizes on the importance of its employees. The organizations give value to the employees based on their professional skills. The task culture is found in the matrix organizations where the culture can be linked to extensive knowledge sharing. International Cultures- Hofstedes cultural dimension The organizations are becoming global as they are stretching their operations across the geographical boundaries. The Hofstede model discusses about the factors that act as distinguishing factor between national cultures (Taras Steel and Kirkman 2012). The various factors include power distance, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, masculinity or femininity and long term orientation. The power distance is concerned with the level of social distance between the workforce and the senior management. The uncertainty avoidance factor is concerned with the type of risk faced by the organization. The individualism or collectivism factor refers to the ability of a culture to reward the efforts of the individual people. A masculine culture is believed to have characteristics of male person while the gentle features of a female person (Taras Steel and Kirkman 2012) characterize a femininity culture. The long term orientation factor refers to the difference between different national cultures. Tuckman- Group Dynamics There are a series of group development that are observed in organizations. The groups undergo through five different stages of development- forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning (Williams 2014). The group members are willing to work together in the forming stage. The storming stage consists of the development of the arguments and the rise of conflicts among the team members. The end result of the conflict gives rise to rules or norms that should be followed. This stage is followed by the adjourning stage, which is a positive path that should be followed by the group members after they resolve their conflicts. This model of group dynamics is widely followed by the organizations. Case Study: Transformation of HMV The HMV is a global organization that has witnessed a major transformation to an entertainment brand from a music CD retailer (Ittoo 2015). It offers live events, gaming and wonderful cinema experience. The company has introduced loyalty scheme, known as purehmv, which strengthened the customer relations of the company. This scheme allowed the customer base to make points and trade the same in various things. The sales figures of the company increased and the company witnessed enormous profits. The company made the plans of transformations three years back. The company made detailed planning and implemented the same. The company made constant efforts to improve its operational excellence, which is evident in the balance sheet of the company. This made the company successful and popular among the masses. SWOT Analysis of Virgin Megastore Strengths 1. Strong Brand name 2. The stores are established across many countries 3. Diversified parent company 4. The brand is present in many countries 5. The company is well established in the middle east 6. Establishment of first music store in London Weakness 1. Stagnant business in some countries 2. Lack of product diversity and limited business Opportunities 1. It can start their own music album, which would grab the attention of the customers 2. Utilize the opportunities of venturing into movies and sponsorships. It can utilize the videogame market to expand their business. 3. It can utilize the opportunities of manufacturing music electronics. Threats 1. Constantly changing technology 2. Music life can get extinct 3. Severe competition caused by innovative models Table 1: SWOT analysis (Source: Balogun and Johnson 2014) Strength Virgin Megastore is a branded company and enjoys good brand value. The company enjoys brand recognition and is spread across various countries. The brand name is established in as many as fifteen countries. The companys biggest asset is the brand name. The company has a strong brand name Virgin. Virgin has a god brand reputation across Australia and the United States. The brand name is the indication of the quality of product that is offered to the consumers (Balogun and Johnson 2014). The company has strong managing body. The management body of the company has strong skills and expertise and looks after the need and wants of the consumers. The management is able to understand the taste and preference of the consumers and makes sure that the demand of the consumers are met by the company, which is critical for enhancing and preserving the brand name of the company. The company has an outstanding market share with numerous stores established across various countries. The company has a good hold over the global market and has strong control over the global market. The company has gained strategic locations across many countries, which has made Virgin stores accessible to customers across various countries. The company is well established in the middle countries. The company enjoys good market share in the Middle East countries and has a strong customer base in the Middle East countries (Balogun 2012). The company has ventured in to the music arena and opened its first music store in London. The company has a good reputation in Britain and the company utilizes this to establish strong footing in the music industry. The company caters to the need and preferences of all age group. It aims at wide demographic group. Weakness One of the weaknesses of the company is that it low product portfolio. Therefore, one thing that can be seen is that the company does not have diversification in products. The low product portfolio reduces the scope of earning for the company. It reduces the scope for growth and expansion for the company. Virgin Megastore has faced stagnation in certain countries. This reduces the scope and growth of the company. It can even lead to the decline of the product lifecycle. Therefore, the company suffers from certain shortcomings and limitations that can hinder the operations of the company and also affect the profitability of the company (Benito-Osorio et al. 2013). Opportunities The company, Virgin Megastore has certain opportunities that it can utilize to promote the business and to expand the business in the longer run. Virgin Megastore has ventured in the music industry. The company can utilize these opportunities to venture in the manufacture of music electronics. This will help the company to expand the market share and expand its scope of earning. It will bring diversification in the product portfolio of the company and will assist in enhancing the profitability of the company. The company can juggle with the opportunity of entering the videogame market and can experiment with movies and sponsorship as a means to expand the business. The company can also use the opportunity to start their own music album which will grab the attention of the customers and will help the company in establishing a strong footing in the music industry. This will promote diversification in the business of Virgin Megastore. Threats One of the threats that Virgin Megastore faces is that technology is constantly changing and the inability of the company to cope with the changing innovation can make the companys growth stagnant. It will limit the scope of earning and expansion or the company. Competition from rival companies and models can pose a major threat to the company (Balogun 2012). Product Diversification Virgin Megastore had been suffering from declining sales figure, which adversely hampers the financial health of the company. This is a major problem for the company since it hinders the scope and growth of the company. It also affects the profitability of the company. Therefore, the company embarks on introducing new products to improve the scope of the company and thereby, tackle the declining lifecycle of the existing product. Product diversification is the strategy adopted by the company to restructure the organization and consequently improve the business condition of the company. Virgin Megastore has adopted this strategy to develop the business and increase the product portfolio of the company. It will help the company to overcome the weakness of the company. It will help the company to diversify the product range and add new products in the list for the company. It will help the company to boost the sales of the company and it will help the company to enter new markets and wi ll strengthen the market share of the company (Littler, Bramble and McDonald 2014). There are certain processes and steps that Virgin Megastore has to implement the strategy of product diversification adopted by the company. The requisite steps that need to be taken are: Setting up of objectives The company has to set up objectives based on the situations. In this case, the company has to analyze the situation and see the area of shortcomings. The company suffers from low product portfolio and thus, the product lifecycle of the existing products is in the declining stage. The company has to set objectives as per the problem faced by the company. The company should adopt an aggressive market approach and utilize the product diversification strategy to tackle the limitations faced from the existing product. Thus, the company is able to form its objectives and aims that it intends to achieve product diversification. Approach The proposed approach is introducing new products to existing and new customers, which can help the company to increase the customer base and thereby strengthen the market share of the company and will help the company to consolidate its position in the market. It will also help the company to increase and diversify its product range. A detailed study of the market needs to be carried out and a viable and feasible list of the products needs to be planned that the company intends to launch and introduce in the market (Wiersema and Bowen 2008). Source Product diversification is an expensive and time consuming process. It is important that the resources of the company is assessed and evaluated. The resources and funds of the company need to be evaluated. Proper arrangement of the resources of the company needs to be done and proper allotment of funds needs to be done. The company intends on developing the product internally and therefore, the company has to strategically plan the product development. Virgin Megastore needs to analyse the opportunities in the market and increase its production of product so it strengthens the marketing plan of the company. The financial condition of the company has to be analysed before the product diversification strategy can be implemented. Since the company went through a stagnant period with a dip in sales, it is important that the sources of fund and resources are analysed and evaluated before implementing the strategy. Resources Assessment of resources needs to be made, which is a critical step in planning the product diversification process. The budget of the plan has to be made and the amount of investment needs to be assessed. The supply chain management has to be assessed and evaluated. Suppliers for the product have to be evaluated and proper communication and effective relationship needs to be built with them. The expected sales figure need to be estimated and proper marketing plans need to be made. Suitable distribution network need to be fixed and evaluated along with sound marketing plan (Hutzschenreuter and Horstkotte 2013). Analysis of element of Risk There is risk element in every business endeavor. Therefore, it is important that the cost of developing and marketing the products is analyzed and the risk element of the strategy and the approach need to be understood and analyzed. There has to be various measures that need to be taken to offset the risk factor. The risk factors that are involved in product diversification are lack of acceptance of the product by the target market. The shift in the demand pattern and taste and preferences of the customers are some of the risk factors involved in product diversification. Cyclical trend of economy can also affect the product diversification strategy (Wiersema and Bowen 2008). Efficient research Proper efficient research need to be done to understand the target market and taste and preferences of the market. Small scale market test need to be done to analyze the feasibility and viability of the research. The feedback of the prospective customers needs to be studied. It will shed critical light onto the potential of the strategy. Proper market segmentation needs to be done and potential rivals and competitors need to be studied. Market research is a critical element in product diversification strategy so that the correct product is introduced to the targeted market. Proper analysis of the cost needs to be done so that an accurate budget can be made for the strategy (Benito-Osorio et al. 2013). Comparison between existing and proposed organizational chart Figure 1: Existing Organizational Chart (Source: Created by Author) Figure 2: Proposed Organizational Chart (Source: Created by Author) On careful analysis and comparison between existing and the proposed organizational chart, it can be seen that new wings and an addiction in the hierarchy cycle has been made. The product diversification strategy has demanded the induction of product manager in the organizational chart. Product manager will play a key role in development of products and will also assist in enhancing the nature of product. Along with the induction of product manager, few recruitment and selection of new employees have been made in the organization to meet the demand and needs of the strategy. Therefore, there are few additions to the organizational chart of the company. Specific role and responsibilities are assigned to the employees. One employee will be assigned with conducting market research, another with sales and another with back office job. 3 new selections of employees are made for market research. Therefore, it will assist in achieving the strategy of the company. There is no delayering and downsizing of employees and there are no job loss chances. Product diversification strategy requires fresh and additional workforce. There is no downsizing of employees and there is no threat of job loss. Proper training and development procedure will be done to train new employees and improve the quality of existing employees. This will enhance the productivity and performance of the employees and will consequently play an important role in increasing the output and performance of the company. It will also enhance the expertise and knowledge of the workers. It will play a critical role in enhancing the production level of the company and also increases the product portfolio of the company (Hutzschenreuter and Horstkotte, 2013). References Alcalde Heras, Mara del Henar 2014, "Building product diversification through contractual RD agreements",RD Management,vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 384-397. Balogun, J. and Johnson, G. 2014, "Organizational Restructuring and Middle Manager Sensemaking",The Academy of Management Journal,vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 523-549. Balogun, J. 2012, "The Practice of Organizational Restructuring",European Management Journal,vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 81-91. Bell, R.L. and Martin, J.S., 2012. The relevance of scientific management and equity theory in everyday managerial communication situations.Journal of Management Policy and Practice,13(3). Benito-Osorio, D., ngel Guerras-Martn, L. and ngel Zuiga-Vicente, J. 2012, "Four decades of research on product diversification: a literature review",Management Decision,vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 325-344. Casalino, N., 2014. Learning to connect: a training model for public sector on advanced e-government services and inter-organizational cooperation.International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC),7(1), pp.24-31. Daft, R.L., 2015.Organization theory and design. Cengage Learning. Datamonitor (Firm) "Virgin Megastores",Virgin Megastores,[Online]. Dinges, N.G. and Maynard, W.S., 2013. Intercultural aspects of organizational effectiveness.Handbook of Intercultural Training: Issues in Training Methodology,116, p.50. Geismar, H.N., Sriskandarajah, C. and Zhu, Y., 2016. A Review of Operational Issues in Managing Physical Currency Supply Chains.Production and Operations Management. Harb, A.H. and Chaaya, L.B., 2015. The Supply Chains Strategic Importance for AZADEA Group.Management,5(2), pp.25-33. Hashai, N. and Delios, A. 2012, "Balancing growth across geographic diversification and product diversification: A contingency approach",International Business Review,vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1052-1064. Heath, J., 2014.Morality, competition, and the firm: The market failures approach to business ethics. Oxford University Press. Hutzschenreuter, T. and Horstkotte, J. 2013, "Performance effects of top management team demographic faultlines in the process of product diversification: Product Diversification, Faultlines, and Performance",Strategic Management Journal,vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 704-726. Ittoo, A., 2015. This is 2015. Things change. Langen, A., 2012. Information spillover in brand portfolios. Lee, H., Kim, M.S. and Park, Y., 2012. An analytic network process approach to operationalization of five forces model.Applied Mathematical Modelling,36(4), pp.1783-1795. Littler, C.R., Bramble, T., McDonald, J. and Australia. Dept. of Industrial Relations 2014,Organisational restructuring: downsizing, delayering and managing change at work,Department of Industrial Relations, Canberra. Nnadi, C., 2014. The Role of Creativity and Innovation in Business Growth and Sustainability: An Ideal Model.International Journal of Economics Management Sciences,2014. Research and Markets: Examine the Key Issues Driving the UKs Video Games and Consoles Retailing Market2006, , Normans Media Ltd, Coventry. Roels, H., 2012. Abunch, a tool to teach live electronics in pre-college music education.Journal of Music, Technology Education,5(2), pp.181-193. Sergaki, P., Kalogeras, N., Pennings, J.M.E., Verhees, F. and Benos, T. 2016, "Cooperatives organizational restructuring, strategic attributes and performance: The case of agribusiness cooperatives in Greece",Agribusiness: An International Journal,vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 127-150. Taras, V., Steel, P. and Kirkman, B.L., 2012. Improving national cultural indices using a longitudinal meta-analysis of Hofstede's dimensions.Journal of World Business,47(3), pp.329-341. (2016).Virgin Megastore | Homepage. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Aug. 2016]. Wiersema, M.F. and Bowen, H.P. 2008, "Corporate Diversification: The Impact of Foreign Competition, Industry Globalization, and Product Diversification",Strategic Management Journal,vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 115-132. Williams, S., 2014. Group dynamics for teams.Action Learning: Research and Practice,11(1), pp.109-111

Friday, April 3, 2020

The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America

Introduction Capital punishment has otherwise been referred to as death sentence or death penalty. It can also be used to refer to legal execution of a convicted individual or through a judicial process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The capital punishment has always been used in situations where an individual or criminal is judicially convicted of a capital offence or capital crime (Milhorn 401). It is important to examine the origin of capital punishment. The capital is a term that was coined from the Latin word â€Å"capitalis† which actually, in its literal sense means â€Å"gaze at the head.† So it means that initially, capital punishment was a situation where a convicted criminal had his or her head judicially severed. Nonetheless, it is important to note that capital punishment, in the past, has virtua lly been utilized every society (Milhorn 401). However, available literature indicates that only 58 countries of the world still practice capital punishment; this represents only approximately 5% of all countries in the world. The meaning of this is that about 95% of all countries in the world have turned away from using capital punishment to contain crimes. In many countries, capital punishment is still a subject of hot debate in many countries, including the United States of America, and standpoints can vary within a given singular cultural religion amongst a group of individuals or political ideology (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46). Amongst the nations that do not recognize capital punishment as a form of deterring or terminating the commission of capital offences are those that are found within the European Union. This is well spelt in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Even though the Transparency International consider most countries as abolitionists against capital punishment, research findings indicate that more than 60% of the worlds population reside in countries where capital punishment is still an option for punishing or deterring capital offenders. Example of such countries where capital punishment is still an option are the United States of America, the People’s Republic of China and Indonesia (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57). However, looking at the contemporary society, the global distribution of death penalty has been varying greatly with some countries and states abolishing and reinstating capital punishments.Advertising Looking for essay on criminal law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since the end of the Second World War, the global tendency toward abolishing the death penalty has been on the rise. According to available information, there are countries that have abolished death sentencing completely; some have only allowed it under special or specific circumstan ces while others are yet to make their decisions and take a stand on abolishing it. Even though death penalty is still being practiced in a significant number of developed nations, it was widely practiced in developing countries most of which were under the control of repressive, dictatorial or totalitarian governments. With regard to this, it will be accurate to argue that that capital punishment has some times been used for political reasons to contain political dissidents. The death punishment in America is varied depending with jurisdictions. Practically, death punishment in the United States of America is only applicable in cases of motivated murder and more remotely for felony assassination or what is otherwise referred to as indenture murder. The (capital) punishment is believed to have been there even at the time of the earlier colonies of the United States; it as well continued to be in force within the states that came to form afterwards. In the process of judicial executi on, the methods are different and depended on the type of criminal activity committed. The first to be sentenced to capital punishment in America was executed in 1608; the person was judicially executed after being convicted of spying on behalf of the government of Spain. Afterwards, the capital punishment in the United States have been abolished and reinstated for a significant number of times. Nonetheless, several states within the United States apply capital punishment for differently in relation to crime committed (Clarke and Whitt, pp.03-68). This positional paper will argue in favor of death penalties. To this effect, the paper will examine the various reason death penalty is still appropriate and important towards containing certain types of criminal activities. Moreover, the paper will utilize the ideas such as DNA evidences and other forms of evidences as they relate to death as a penalty. The various impact of banning death as a penalty will also form part of the themes in this paper. Abolitionists’ Views In order to get the basis on which to understand the significance of capital punishment, it is important to start by looking at arguments against the judicial execution.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is important to note that even though death penalty has gained support from various individuals, private organizations and state institutions, the subject is still hotly detested; there are a significant number of people or group of individuals who cannot see the positive side of capital punishment. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots. The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Ho ward. Meanwhile, it was Cesare strongly campaigned against capital punishment the world over. Beccaria hypothesized that the state does not encompass any validation to take away life either for a group of individuals or an individual. The work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice. In fact, the influence of this theory achieved some grounds worldwide where some countries actually abolished death penalty as a way of judicial killing. The ideas of Beccaria on death penalty had great influence on the American intellectuals who fought for its abolishment except in extreme cases like treason and crimes of murder. The abolitionist movement has argued, borrowing from Beccaria’s arguments, that capital punishment does not serve as a deterrent to crimes for which it is meted. During the early part of the 19th century, abolitionist movement gained momentum in the United States of America and consequently some states revised their statutes in relation to capital punishment. Even so, more states maintained their capital punishment statutes. By the time the United States was facing the First World War, capital punishment was reinstated; this could be interpreted as a blow to the anti-capital punishment crusaders. As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of incontrovertible arguments that are worth acknowledging. They have argued that there exist nothing like humane method of judicial execution irrespective of what crime the convict might have committed to warrant death sentence. These people state that execution is torturous to a convicted criminal and that it must be realized that the criminals are also human beings with human feelings and fear of losing their families. Moreover, an argument has been advanced that the mental conditions of the convicted as at the time of commission of capital offense is not usually gi ven the attention it requires; besides, it is noted that from the time capital punishment is pronounced on a convict upto the time when execution takes place, the convict undergoes a lot of psychological torture and mental disturbance. This causes more suffering to the convict than the commission of offence may warrant.Advertising Looking for essay on criminal law? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most important point raised by those arguing against capital punishment is the virtual conviction that there may be a miscarriage of righteousness where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this takes place. Due to this uncertainty, many individuals have petitioned and pressurized states to consider abolishing death penalties in their judicial systems. Another argument advanced by anti-capital punishment crusaders is that the families of the convicts should not be overlooked. They say that the families also feel pain when they realize there loved ones are to be judicially executed; the families of the convicts are said to go through hell during the time starting from the pronouncement of death sentence to the actual execution of the convicted criminal. Racism has been linked to unjustified death sentences where members of a given race are more likely to be handed death penalty than others. For instance, it is estimated t hat black capital criminals are highly likely to get death penalty where the victims are mostly whites; in cases involving black victims, white capital offenders are most likely to escape death penalties. Meanwhile, there are so many reasons the anti-capital punishment crusaders have advanced against death penalty. However, maintenance of death penalty in the penal code is still very important in terms of certain crime prevention. The Need for Capital Punishment As much as there have been oppositions to death penalty by human rights and activists and other abolitionists, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences. In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment. This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment r emains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention (Council of Europe, pp.3-13). The argument between those for the death penalties has been going on for sometimes now in the United States of America. There are many people who have tried by all means available to them to push the state to abolish death penalty. However, the fact is that death penalty is necessary in cases of certain crimes like serial killing, abduction and rape of underage children and other forms of felony. Those opposed to death penalty base their arguments on the possibilities of convicting and subsequently executing an innocent person (Council of Europe, pp. 15-25). The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect. One striking fact is that before someone is convicted of a felony and sentenced to death, through investigation must be conducted ; the process of conducting such investigations includes the use of scientific techniques like DNA tests even though this has been faulted to have possible errors of proof just like any other means of determining the guilt of a criminal offender. Most important to note is the fact that the conviction process does not only utilize one means of determining whether one is guilty or innocent, a combination of methodological techniques is used so that one technique is highly likely to examine what is beyond the scope of another. It is important to note that those arguing against the death penalty have advanced some arguments that are both logical and realistic. However, they seem to be oblivious of the fact that the process of conviction is so elaborate and effective that the chances of convicting an innocent individual is actually close to unlikely (Council of Europe, pp. 15-30). Moreover, it is still wrong to argue that death punishment may condemn an otherwise innocent person to death . There is absolutely no proof for this claim; before anybody faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital crime committed. Therefore, the likelihood of any innocent individual being executed by mistake is actually limited. Given the perpetually improving forensic science, the chances of judicial execution of an innocent individual is nearing zero. It therefore implies that the fear of executing an innocent person judicially should not now be amongst the reasons anti-capital punishment crusaders use against the death penalty (Gershman, pp. 107-117). The inappropriateness of capital punishment has also been widely propagated through the various media. The fact is that the media has always confused the true distinction between the t erms â€Å"acquittal† and â€Å"innocence† as they are used in the justice system. It is this confusion in the media’s judicial reporting that present the public with the belief that those who escape convictions are actually innocent individuals who would otherwise be executed for a given crime. The clear characteristic is that innocence suggests that the individual did not indulge in the offense although being exonerated does not imply innocence. The fact is that the court is likely to acquit a suspect in cases where the defendants are not able to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the accused actually committed the offense. It is in such cases where the court has acquitted an individual, irrespective of whether he or she committed the crime or not, due to lack of proof beyond reasonable doubt that the media has taken it as if the court has found the individual innocent. In summary, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but who se guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt. This is also a proving ground on which capital punishment should not be abolished (Gershman, pp. 131-140). The possible conviction and subsequent execution of an innocent individual is unfortunate by all standards of justice available. But, it is noteworthy that the unfortunate scenario can not only be avoided through abolition of death penalty. Instead, the immense role played by death penalty in terms of criminal deterrence should appear in the bigger picture. Even if innocent people can mistakenly be executed for crimes they have not committed or abated, their number may not match those offenders who qualify for death penalty. This implies that the probability of executing an innocent person is immensely insignificant and hence should not be a reason for which death penalty should be abolished. Besides, in the recent past, there has never been heard of a situation where and individual has mistaken ly been convicted and sentenced to death. This reinforces the argument that the chances of executing an innocent person are very limited and almost unlikely (Gershman, pp. 202-213). Looking at the bigger picture, it is important to acknowledge that there are some career criminals whose existence means perpetual threat to social tranquility besides creating social disorder. For example, a career criminal whose presence in any setting is always defined by violence and even death might have been in and out of jail. This implies that such as criminal cannot be rehabilitated through jailing and hence the need to eliminate him or her from the society. In this case, death penalty may not be considered as a punishment to the offender, but should be seen as a way of ensuring that a single individual or few people do not threaten the overall social peace within a given society. In relation to this, it will be noted that judicial execution is an effective way of stopping capital offenses. Ther e may be many criminals who carry out capital offenses, but the judicially executed ones will never commit such crimes again. The victims of criminals vary in terms of gender and age. In many cases, there are vulnerable groups which suffer in the hands of certain offenders. For example, children and women are the most likely victims of sex offenders. Sex offenders are normally handed more severe punishment than other offenders. This is acknowledgeable, but the fact is that punishment should not be seen in terms of what kind of offence is committed; it should be viewed in the light of what effects or impacts it is likely to have on the general public, especially with respect to right to life and other fundamental freedoms. In this case, it will be defeating to logic to let an individual whose behavior has proved heinous to the general public to continue living amongst the members of the society; this will simply offer such an individual more opportunities to continue with is heinous act. If left unchecked through death, such individuals are likely to remain threats to the neighborhood of their residence. So, the only way to ensure they do not continue with their socially threatening undertakings is sentence them to death (Gershman, pp. 231-137). Generally, punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. In view of this, it is worth mentioning that death sentence is a unique its own capacity as a deterrence to reoccurrences of particular crimes. Unlike other penalties, death is not meant to teach the convicted a lesson. It performs two levels of functions; one, it simply puts an end to heinous criminal activities by a specific individual. This implies that there may be other criminals committing similar crimes but the actions by the executed individual are completely terminated. Two, it is a fact that many people fear dying; and the constitutional provide for death as a penalty to deter an individual from committing certain crimes. Therefore, in situati ons where a convicted individual is executed, the message is not to the executed but to those who are yet to commit a similar act. This is what is referred to as general deterrence or indirect deterrence to crime. According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties. The study findings further indicate that each death sentence pronounced resulted into 4.5 reductions in murder crimes while each execution led to reductions in murders by three. Research studies have also been conducted within the United States of America and the findings shows that the rate of homicide increased by 91% in the states where death penalty was abolished. Meanwhile, 70% of the states are reported to have experienced a decline in homicide after the state s had re-introduced death penalty (Espejo, pp1-15). Data collected from the general public are in agreement with the sentiment that capital punishment should not be abolished. Many of the surveyed public members of various countries have expressed their sentiments that retribution for the criminal activities committed against them, their relatives and friends is more significant to them than deterrence. An important point to take into consideration is that many criminals have been executed since death penalty was introduced several decades ago. This means that the justice system has actually not been sufficiently equipped to handle the criminals and hence failed to reform their behaviors. For instance, different sex offenders have been caught severally in different cases. The fact therefore is that the threat of death has not deterred them, so the focus shifts from rehabilitating the criminals to protecting the safety of the general members of the society; and this is through legall y eliminating them by execution. The argument here may be that death penalty has not succeeded to deter such heinous criminal activities; nonetheless, it is better to have new people committing the crime dealt with rather than let individuals to live and repeatedly commit there heinous acts. This makes sure one does not perpetually commit the offence (Espejo, pp.34-38). Death penalty has been limited to certain age. In 2005, the Supreme Court of the United State of America made a ruling that adolescent individuals are not subject to capital punishment. The ruling was premised on the research done by the American Psychological Association. The research findings claimed that adolescents are less mature than the adults and hence are subject such factors as peer pressures, difficulties in restraining their impulses and the general underdeveloped sense or responsibility. This research made the Supreme Court to rule that people under the age of 18 years old cannot be handed death sentence . The Supreme Court ruling on this matter is not sustainable in terms of ensuring justice for all citizens, especially the victims whose only hope is retribution for criminal acts committed against them. It implies that victims of heinous activities committed by the less than 18 years old criminals can never get justice yet the state is mandated to ensure justice and safety for all. The fact is that, in terms of development, there is a thin line between an 18 year old and 17 years old individuals and thus adult age may not imply. The 17 year old averagely thinks just like an 18 year old individual. In this case, age should not be a factor in determining who gets death sentence and does not. Every behavioral activity should be considered with respect to its danger to the members of the society (Espejo, pp.132-146). Death sentence should apply to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. For instance, the vi ctim of rape by a less than 18 year old teenager will have the same horrible experience as the victim of rape by some who is 18 years and above. The death penalty should therefore be applied for the safety of all members of the society. The rationale here is that the magnitude of pain inflicted through heinous act is totally independent on the age of the offender and that is what should actually inform the justice process. It has also been argued that death punishment is cruel an unusual to both the convict and the convict’s family members and friends. Those who pose this argument are oblivious of the fact that the victim and his or her families and friends also have the same experience. To argue on the cruelty about the cruelty of capital punishment meted to a convict and remain silent on the side of the victim actually defeats the logic of justice. One thing that is important to be borne in mind that the convicted criminal must have been aware of the consequences of committ ing capital offenses. This is reinforced by the fact that the consequences of crimes are well spelt in the statutory books and have been in existence for very many years. Again, it is worth recalling that every judicial execution taking place now, especially in the 21st century, is not the first ones; the executions have been going on since over a thousand years ago. It is therefore a common knowledge that every criminal should know the most probable consequence of every criminal act. In addition, the law is very clear on the kind of people who can be tried and convicted before the court (Espejo, pp.156-162). There are those who are exempted from judicial proceedings; such are those who are mentally ill or have mental disorder, the minor children who are statutorily underage amongst others. In view of all these, it is important to realize that a convicted criminal is always aware of the consequences but went on to commit the crime anyway. Again, the convict must have been aware of t he potential harm and pain to the victim, the victim’s family and friends but went on to commit the crime anyway and also, the convict must have been aware of those who have committed similar offenses and actually convicted and judicially executed. So, it is justified to say or assume that a convicted individual sentenced to capital punishment had sufficient information at his or her disposal to enable him make a rational choice, though this may not always be the case. It therefore implies that in the presence of all these overwhelming information, that is also common in the public domain, the convicted individual still chose to go a head commit a capital offense; this may be referred to as crime by impunity. For this reason, it justified to judicially execute the convict irrespective of whether he or she feels the pain or his or her friends and family do. The idea here is that in case of pain felt by family members and friends of the convict, the convict failed to think of t hat before committing capital offense. In support of the forgoing argument, it is suitable that the mode of an eye for an eye is utilized. Many people who support capital punishment are highly likely to see this as cruel, but this will be very effective in terms of deterring capital offenses and protecting the general innocent public members. The issue is that the victims of capital offenders are, in most cases, innocent; and in cases where they die from heinous acts of offenders, it cannot be argued that they will ever get justice. So, judicially executing somebody who has killed does not necessarily afford the dead victim justice, but it is ensuring that as many capital offenders as possible are eliminated from the society. In terms of moral grounds, anti-capital punishment crusaders have argued that death penalty does not have moral standing; but it is important to state that if that may be true, then the activities of capital criminal offenders are also not morally acceptable in the society. Nonetheless, the question that may be asked is that of how the perpetually or dangerously immoral behavior can be eliminated from the entire society if not by judicial execution. If this question were to be answered, then the response will be none, hence leaving capital punishment as the only means (Mandery, pp.1-9). One other thing that has not been given much of attention in the debate about the appropriateness of death penalty is that every prisoner or inmate would like to escape from prison should an opportunity arises. In fact, there have been several reports indicating that many prisoners have escaped from prison premises. In particular, those on long-term jail terms are most likely to escape from prison given that there lives are at stake due to the jury’s approval. In this case, if capital offenders were to be given long jail terms, they are likely to escape and find their ways back into the society where they are likely to continue committing the very c apital offenses they had been convicted of. In order to avoid such incidences, it is important that those found guilty of capital offenses be handed death penalty and thereafter be executed within the shortest time possible (Espejo, pp. 260-167). Again it is important to recognize that laws are very dynamic and subject to change with time. In situations where a capital offender were to be jailed for life without a parole, the change of law may grant such an offender some minimum level of parole which may beat the logic of justice for the victim or close relations of justice. For instance, a capital offender may be sentenced to life in prison but after some times, the law may possible change in such a way that those who are on life imprisonment jail term may be eligible to release if they meet certain requirements like changed behavior or showing remorsefulness. The consequence of this is that this kind of statutory change may be misused by the inmates through pretending to have beha vior change but once released may again go back into committing similar capital offenses for which he or she was jailed. This imprisonment may be considered to be the most appropriate alternative to capital punishment, but laws change and people also tend to forget about the past. In this scenario, life imprisonment may be abolished and capital offenders may be allowed back into the society after a given period of imprisonment. For this reason, it serves no good the society to abolish capital punishment and this may even lead to upsurge in the number of capital offenders (Yorke 283). The cost of judicial execution has been fronted as one of the reason capital punishment should be abolished; it is explained that the process of running a case of capital punishment demands a lot of money from the state and also the family members of convicts who may be engaged in several court appeals. It is true that going through the process of issuing capital punishment is complex and requires time and financial input. However, the cost is justified; first to ensure that the due process is thorough to avoid convicting an innocent person and also to ensure that it is proven beyond reasonable doubt that the suspect is actually guilty. The processing of executing a convict requires exhaustive evidences which should be ensured are as accurate as possible since everything at that time revolves about lives; first, it revolves around the life of the suspect who may unjustifiably be executed for a crime that might attract lesser sentence and second, in case of murder, the life of the members of the society who may continue to be victims if the accused is released on account of insufficient proof. It is clear that the cost of the whole process is to ensure justice for both the suspect and the victim and potential victims (Yorke 283). Conclusion Death penalty is a capital penalty used in punishing criminals who engage in serious criminal activities that may even go far as causing real o r perceived threat of life. The death penalty has been a serious debate topic in the United States of America. The existence of execution as a form of meting punishment to serious offenders and criminals has over the past drawn mixed perceptions. It is important to note that the differences in opinions are significant reasons for which some states within the United States have abolished death penalties while some still maintain it in their statutes (Milhorn 401). As much as capital punishment is still relevant, there has been heated debate about it with a significant number of people arguing against it. The opposition to capital punishment began as early as 1767 when abolitionist movements were taking roots. The current abolitionist movement has its roots in the works of Montesquieu, a European theorist. Other theorists included English known as Quakers John Bellers, Bentham and John Howard. However, it was the work of Beccaria offered staunch abolitionists with a renewed energy to argue champion against capital punishment with an authoritative voice. As much as death penalty is necessary, those arguing against it advance a significant number of undeniable facts that are worth acknowledging. They argue that capital punishment is cruelty against humanity, offenders might have not been sound mind at the time of commission of a capital offense and that execution puts the family of the convicted into pain and agony (Clarke and Whitt, pp29-46). The most central point raised by those arguing against death punishment is the virtual certainty that there may be a miscarriage of fair dealing or honesty within the court system where an innocent individual may be judicially executed and there is no possible compensation in case this happens. Because of this, several human rights group have petitioned various governments in the world to drop capital punishment from their statutes. Despite the opposition to it, death penalty still has a significant role to play in terms of ensuring deterrence to keep away capital criminals from committing capital offences. In the history of death penalty, there are sufficient evidences indicating that even countries in which capital punishment had been removed from the statutes have reinstated the form of punishment. This implies that the role played by the legality of capital punishment remains invaluable in terms of crime control and prevention. The death penalty provision exists after the law makers realized that it is the only solution to certain crimes, otherwise what government will want to execute the very innocent citizens it is mandated to protect. In order to avoid executing an innocent individual, anybody who faces execution, especially within the United States of America, a carefully selected jury is selected to examine and make decisions on such cases as relate to capital punishment; and they have always worked towards proofs beyond any reasonable doubt that a defendant is actually guilty of the capital c rime committed. However, a jury is obliged to acquit an individual who is most likely guilty but whose guilt cannot be proven before the court or the jury beyond any reasonable doubt. Death punishment is used as deterrence to criminal activities. According to research findings, death penalty has been found to reduce homicide where it is being meted. For instance, the research study conducted by Emory group during the period between 1977 and 1999 indicated that death sentence had been effective in terms of lowering homicide rate in about 3, 054 counties. Capital punishment should be applied to all irrespective of age since the consequences or impacts of such heinous activities are always relatively the similar. Moreover, capital offenders seem to be always aware of the consequences of their criminal act before they commit it yet choose to go ahead (Clarke and Whitt, pp.46-57). Again, in case capital punishment is commuted to life imprisonment, there is high possibility that if the lo ng-term serving inmates escape out of prison, they will still continue to commit the very crime they were convicted of and hence place a mockery on the justice system for the victims and potential victims. Besides, the laws may change in such a manner that the capital offenders get an opportunity to go back into the society and may possibly not be cowed by the lesser consequences (Espejo, pp.156-162). Works Cited Clarke, Williams Whitt, Lauelyn. The bitter fruit of American justice: international and domestic resistance to the death penalty. New York: UPNE, 2007. Council of Europe. The death penalty: beyond abolition, Parts 42-43. New York: Council of Europe, 2004. Espejo, Roman. Does Capital Punishment Deter Crime? New York: Greenhaven Press, 2002. Gershman, Gary. Death penalty on trial: a handbook with cases, laws, and documents. New York: ABC-CLIO, 2005. Mandery, Evan. Capital punishment: a balanced examination. New York: Jones Bartlett Learning, 2005. Milhorn, Thomas. Crime: C omputer Viruses to Twin Towers. New York: Universal-Publishers, 2004. Yorke, Jon. Against the death penalty: international initiatives and implications. New York: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2008 This essay on The Death Penalty Debate in the United States of America was written and submitted by user Sincere Schmidt to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

How to Use Chou in French Conversation

How to Use Chou in French Conversation If youre talking about cabbage in French, then youre going to need to know how to use the word  chou.  Pronounced shoo, the word  chou  can be used to describe a cabbage or as a term of endearment akin to darling or dear. Using  Chou  in Conversation As a vegetable, chou can be served grated raw in a salad, boiled then creamed with bacon bits, stuffed with milk-soaked bread, sausage, eggs, vegetables, and herbs or baked in a cabbage galette with herbs and lardons (hearty French smoked bacon). But, really, the options are only limited by the culinary imagination of Frances  talented regional and restaurant cooks. The use as a term of endearment  may derive from the pretty, frilly, green, slightly delicate Savoy cabbage that the French have a certain affection for. On va manger du chou. Were going to eat some cabbage.Salade de chou rouge  est un excellent example de la cuisine minceur de  Michel Guà ©rard. Red cabbage salad is an excellent example of [chef] Michel Guà ©rards slimming cuisine.Ça va mon [petit] chou? How are you, my darling (my sweet)? Related Words There are a number of related words with chou as their root, for example: un chouchou darling, pet  chouchouter (informal) to pamper, coddle  la choucroute sauerkraut (brine-marinated cabbage)les choux de Bruxelles Brussels sprouts These root  words also wind up in some common French expressions, such as: à ªtre dans les choux (informel) to be screwed up, lost, in trouble  faire chou blanc to draw a blank, to lead nowhereCest chou vert et vert chou.   Its green cabbage and cabbage green. [meaning, roughly: Its the same either way.] Additional Resources As you expand your  vocabulary, youll want to learn more ways to talk about food with your loved ones. French terms of endearmentFood in French